Block diagram of 16 qam

In the amplitude modulation scheme, we can modulate one message signal input signal which is in analog form. It means we can give only one input signal and we can modulate it and transmit to the destination level. And the effective utilization of channel bandwidth is not up to the level. So, these can be overcome by this QAM technique.

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Quadrature amplitude modulation QAM is modulation techniques that we can utilize in analog modulation concept and digital modulation concept. Depending upon the input signal form we can use it in either analog or digital modulation schemes. In QAM, we can modulate two individual signals and transmitted to the receiver level.

And by using the two input signals, the channel bandwidth also increases. QAM can able to transmit two message signals over the same channel. QAM can be defined as it is s a modulation technique that is used to combine two amplitude modulated waves into a single channel to increase the channel bandwidth.

QAM Modulator & Demodulator

The below diagrams show the transmitter and receiver block diagram of the QAM scheme. At the receiver level, the QAM signal is forwarded from the upper channel of receiver and lower channel, and the resultant signals of product modulators are forwarded from LPF1 and LPF2.

Then the filtered outputs are the recovered original signals. The below waveforms are indicating the two different carrier signals of the QAM technique. The quadrature amplitude modulation advantages are listed below.

block diagram of 16 qam

They are. Here is a question for you, what are the disadvantages of QAM? What is Quadrature Amplitude Modulation? Share This Post: Facebook.In this lab, you will observe the 16 QAM modulation and demodulation building Simulink simulation. The most common type of QAM modulation is rectangular QAM, were the constellation points are arranged in a square grid. In Gray code, two adjacent symbols differ in one bit, while in Binary code, two adjacent symbols may differ in 2 bits.

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Therefore, Gray code is preferable over Binary code, since if a receiver maps a symbol to one of its adjacent symbols due to noise or errorsit will lead to 1 wrong bit instead of 2. The demodulator maps the received signal possibly distorted due to noise in the channel back to bit streams. You will observe both constellations in the transmitter and the receiver sides and the Bit Error Rate.

In real transmissions, the transmitted signal may suffer from different types of distortions such as phase errors, amplitude errors, frequency errors, and time jitter. Note that for the previous modulation schemes BPSK and QPSK amplitude errors do not make much difference since the information is contained in the phase. However, for 16 QAM, since it is both phase and amplitude modulations, it is sensitive to amplitude errors and DC offset.

In this part, you will simulate the effect of these distortions on the transmitted signal and how to correct them.

Toggle navigation ECE Labs. Figure 1. Figure 2. QPSK vs. Figure 3. Music Transmission with 16 QAM. Figure 4. QAM Communication System.A generic complex baseband simulation technique, to simulate all M-ary QAM modulation techniques is given here.

The given simulation code is very generic, and it plots both simulated and theoretical symbol error rates for all M-QAM modulation techniques. There exist other constellation shapes like circular, triangular constellations that are more efficient in terms of energy required to achieve same the error probability than the standard rectangular constellation.

Rectangular symmetric or square constellations are the preferred choice of implementation due to its simplicity in implementing modulation and demodulation. In one of the earlier articles, I have discussed the method of constructing constellation for rectangular QAM modulation using Karnaugh-map walkswhere the inherent property of Karnaugh-maps is exploited to construct Gray coded QAM symbols.

Matlab code for dynamically generating M-QAM constellation points based on Karnaugh map Gray code walk is given below. Full Matlab code available in the book Digital Modulations using Matlab — build simulation models from scratch.

Full Matlab code available in the book Digital Modulations using Python. Generally the two main categories of detection techniques, commonly applied for detecting the digitally modulated data are coherent detection and non-coherent detection. In the vector simulation model for the coherent detection, the transmitter and receiver agree on the same reference constellation for modulating and demodulating the information.

block diagram of 16 qam

The modulators generate the reference constellation for the selected modulation type. The same reference constellation should be used if coherent detection is selected as the method of demodulating the received data vector. On the other hand, in the non-coherent detection, the receiver is oblivious to the reference constellation used at the transmitter. The receiver uses methods like envelope detection to demodulate the data. The IQ detection technique is an example of coherent detection.

In the IQ detection technique, the first step is to compute the pair-wise Euclidean distance between the given two vectors — reference array and the received symbols corrupted with noise. Each symbol in the received symbol vector represented on a p-dimensional plane should be compared with every symbol in the reference array. Next, the symbols, from the reference array, that provide the minimum Euclidean distance are returned. The Euclidean distance between them is given by.

The pair-wise Euclidean distance between two sets of vectors, say x and yon a p-dimensional space, can be computed using the vectorized code. The vectorized code returns the ideal signaling points from matrix y that provides the minimum Euclidean distance.

Since the vectorized implementation is devoid of nested for-loopsthe program executes significantly faster for larger input matrices. The given code is very generic in the sense that it can be easily reused to implement optimum coherent receivers for any N -dimensional digital modulation technique Please refer the books Digital Modulations using Matlab and Digital Modulations using Python for complete simulation code.These QAM modulators and demodulators are required to provide the capability to modulate both the in-phase and quadrature components of the modulating signal onto the carrier.

These are then amplitude modulated with the two data streams known as the I or In-phase and the Q or quadrature data streams. These are generated in the baseband processing area. The two resultant signals are summed and then processed as required in the RF signal chain, typically converting them in frequency to the required final frequency and amplifying them as required. It is worth noting that as the amplitude of the signal varies any RF amplifiers must be linear to preserve the integrity of the signal.

Any non-linearities will alter the relative levels of the signals and alter the phase difference, thereby distorting he signal and introducing the possibility of data errors. The signals enter the system, they are split and each side is applied to a mixer. One half has the in-phase local oscillator applied and the other half has the quadrature oscillator signal applied.

A further requirement is to derive a local oscillator signal for the demodulation that is exactly on the required frequency for the signal.

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Any frequency offset will be a change in the phase of the local oscillator signal with respect to the two double sideband suppressed carrier constituents of the overall signal. Systems include circuitry for carrier recovery that often utilises a phase locked loop - some even have an inner and outer loop.

Recovering the phase of the carrier is important otherwise the bit error rate for the data will be compromised. The circuits shown above show the generic IQ QAM modulator and demodulator circuits that are used in a vast number of different areas.

Not only are these circuits made from discrete components, but more commonly they are used within integrated circuits that are able to provide a large number of functions. Basic QAM I-Q modulator circuit The two resultant signals are summed and then processed as required in the RF signal chain, typically converting them in frequency to the required final frequency and amplifying them as required.

Basic QAM I-Q demodulator circuit The basic modulator assumes that the two quadrature signals remain exactly in quadrature. Supplier Directory For everything from distribution to test equipment, components and more, our directory covers it.

Selected Video What is a Spectrum Analyzer? Featured articles.If there is a good margin, higher orders of QAM can be used to gain a faster data rate, but if the link deteriorates, lower orders are used to preserve the noise margin and ensure that a low bit error rate is preserved.

As the QAM order increases, so the distance between the different points on the constellation diagram decreases and there is a higher possibility of data errors being introduced. Accordingly there is a balance to be made between the data rate and QAM modulation order, power and the acceptable bit error rate.

Whilst further error correction can be introduced to mitigate any deterioration in link quality, this will also decrease the data throughput. QAM is in many radio communications and data delivery applications. However some specific variants of QAM are used in some specific applications and standards. There is a balance between data throughput and signal to noise ratio required.

As the order of the QAM signal is increased, i. However the downside is that a better signal to noise ratio is required to achieve this. For some systems the order of the modulation format is fixed, but in others where there is a two way link, it is possible to adapt the order of the modulation to obtain the best throughput for the given link conditions. The level of error correction used is also altered. In this way, changing the modulation order, and the error correction, the data speed can be optimised whilst maintaining the required error rate.

For domestic broadcast applications for example, 64 QAM and QAM are often used in digital cable television and cable modem applications. The order of the QAM modulation has to be set at the transmitter, because the transmission is only one way, and in addition to this, there are thousands of receivers, making it impossible to have a dynamically adaptive form of modulation.

For the many forms of wireless and cellular technology it is possible to dynamically alter the order of QAM modulation and error correction according to the link conditions between the two ends. As data rates have risen and the demands on spectrum efficiency have increased, so too has the complexity of the link adaptation technology.

Data channels are carried on the cellular radio signal to enable fast adaptation of the link to meet the prevailing link quality and ensure the optimum data throughput, balancing transmitter power, QAM order, and forward error correction, etc. The constellation diagrams show the different positions for the states within different forms of QAM, quadrature amplitude modulation.

As the order of the modulation increases, so does the number of points on the QAM constellation diagram. It can be seen from these few QAM constellation diagrams, that as the modulation order increases, so the distance between the points on the constellation decreases. Accordingly small amounts of noise can cause greater issues. As the level of noise increases due to low signal strengths, so the area covered by a point on the constellation increases.

If it becomes too large, then the receiver is unable to determine which position on the constellation the transmitted signal was meant to be, and this results in errors. It is also found that the higher the order of modulation for the QAM signal, the greater the amount of amplitude variation is present on the transmitted signal. For transmitter RF amplifiers for everything from Wi-Fi to cellular and more, it means that linear amplifiers are required.

As linear amplifiers are less efficient than those that can be run in saturation, it means that techniques like Doherty amplifiers and envelope tracking may be needed. Also as the amplitude variation increases, so the level of efficiency falls.Steelers Matchup Patriots vs. Dolphins Matchup 2015 NFL ATS Picks: 54. Free Soccer football Prediction,Soccer News,Soccer Transfers and Lots More.

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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation : Working Principle and Its Applications

Total retail sales for the holiday season of November and December will grow by 3. That sounds like good news, but it's actually less than the 4. It's not that people are shopping less or not buying as much. Instead, sales totals are being driven down by increased discounting. This holiday season growth rate is also below the expected 3.

Again, that's due at least in part to intense competition between retailers driving prices lower. While it seems like online retailers have taken a huge piece of the market, they only accounted for an estimated 10. In 2017, eMarketer expects online retail sales to grow to 11. Others, such as dollar stores and luxury are doing well. So underneath the generally positive numbers are spots of real turmoil and contraction.

QAM Formats: 8-QAM, 16-QAM, 32-QAM, 64-QAM, 128-QAM, 256-QAM

In addition, overall growth at physical retailers has slowed. Digital growth is being pushed by "increases in mobile commerce and the intensifying online battle between large retailers and digital marketplaces," according to eMarketer.

These predictions indicate that the slow march to more sales moving online continues, but brick-and-mortar retailers still have the vast majority of the business.

That means that while many traditional physical chains will continue to suffer, there's still a significant customer base shopping in actual stores. That creates a challenge for struggling chains like Sears Holdings that may be entering a make-or-break holiday season.

Sears and Kmart need to find ways to get customers into the stores that go beyond price. That's a big challenge for the shrinking company. Chains that can give shoppers a reason to visit -- with discounts, exclusive merchandise, and even in-store events or entertainment -- still have a chance to succeed.

That's going to keep getting harder as digital convenience grows, but in 2017 there remains room for some brick-and-mortar chains to grow year-over-year comparable-store sales. Kline has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has no position in any of the stocks mentioned.

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The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy. Kline is an accomplished writer and editor who has worked for Microsoft on its Finance app and The Boston Globe, where he wrote for the paper and ran the Boston. His latest book, "Worst Ideas Ever," (Skyhorse) can be purchased at bookstores everywhere.

Module 4: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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